Educational Research



Cooperative Learning

Problem-Based Learning

Integrative Trends

Critical Thinking

Creative Problem Solving

Learning Styles

Distance & Technology

Student Course Evaluations




Astin, A., What Matters in College, Josey Bass, 1993.

Astin, A., Achieving Education Excellence, Josey Bass, 1985.

Chickering, A. and Gamson, Z., "Principles for Good Practice," AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7, 1987.

Chickering, A. and Gamson, Z., "Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education," The Wingspread Journal, 1987.

Landis, Raymond B., Studying Engineering; A Road Map to a Rewarding Career, Ch. 4, Discovery Press, 1995.

Improving Engineering Design; Designing for Competitive Advantage, Committee on Engineering Design Theory and Methodology, Manufacturing Studies Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991.

Seymour, D. T., Causing Quality in Higher Education, American Council on Education, ORYX Press, 1993.

Perry’s Model for Cognitive Development (See Learning Styles)

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[1] Astin, A., "Engineering Outcomes," ASEE Prism, 27-30, Sept. 1993.

[2] Astin, A., Assessment for Excellence, American Council on Education, ORYX Press, 1993.

[3] Besterfield-Sacre, M.E., Atman, C.J., Shuman, "Characteristics of Freshmen Engineering Students: Models for Determining Student Attrition in Engineering," Journal for Engineering Education, April 1997.

[4] Besterfield-Sacre, M.E., Atman, C.J., Shuman, "How Freshman Attitudes Change in the Freshman Year, American Society for Engineering Education Conference, June 1995.

[5] Besterfield-Sacre, M.E., Atman, C.J., Shuman, L.J., Porter, R.L., Felder, R.M., and Fuller, H., "Changes in Fresheman Engineers’ Attitudes - A Cross Institutional Comparison: What Makes a Difference?" Frontiers in Education Conference Proceedings, 1996.

[6] Felder, R.M., A Longintudinal Study of Engineering Student Performance and Retention. Part III - Gender Differences in Student Performance and Attitudes," Journal of Engineering Education, 151-163, 1994.

[7] Felder, R.M., Felder, G.N., Mauney, M., Hamrin, C.E., and Dietz, E.J., "A Longintudinal Study of Engineering Student Performance and Retention: Gender Differences in Student Performance and Attitudes," Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 84 no. 2, 1995.

[8] The Joint Committee on Standards for Education Evaluation, James R. Sanders, Chair, The Program Evaluation Standards, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1994.

[9] Lust, Nancy L. and Dickinson, David, "Longintudinal Student Tracking," Best Assessment Processes in Engineering Education, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, April 1997.

[10] Naples, Larisa M., "Evaluating Engineering Education: A Stakeholder-Driven, Outcomes-Based Approach," Proceedings of the 1995 ASEE Conference on Engineering Education, Washington DC, 1995.

[11] Nichols, James O., A Practitioner’s Handbook for Institutional Effectiveness and Student Outcomes Assessment Implementation, Agathon Press, 1991.

[12] Stevens, F., Lawrenz, F., and Sharp, .L., edited by J. Frechtling, User-Friendly Handbook for Project Evaluation: Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology Education, Washington D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1996.

Classroom Assessment

Angelo, T.A. and Cross, K. P., Classroom Assessment Techniques; A Handbook for College Teachers, 2nd ed., Josey-Bass, 1993.

Diamond, N.A., "Small Group Instructional Diagnosis: Tapping Student Perceptions of Teaching," In E. Wadsworth, POD: A Handbook for New Practitioners, New Forums Press, 89-94, 1988.

Hess, Carla, SGID Workshop Notes, Bush Faculty Development Workshop, 1994.

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Cooperative Learning

Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom, Interaction Book Co., 1991.

Cooper, J., "Cooperative Learning and College Teaching: Tips from the Trenches," The Teaching Professor, 4(5), 1-2, May 1990.

Haynes, W. L. and Riordan, C. A., "Student Cooperative Learning Workshops Go Mainstream: UMR’s Excel Program," Journal of Engineering Education, 85(4), 293-302, October 1996.

Hill, G., Group versus Individual Performance: Are N+1 Heads Better than One?" Psychological Bulletin, 91, 517-539, 1982.

Mourtos, N. J., "The Nuts and Bolts of Cooperative Learning in Engineering," Journal of Engineering Education, 86(1), 35-38, January 1997.


    1. Related areas: Active Learning, Collaborative Learning, Teaming.
    2. Cooperative Learning stresses hetergeneous grouping practices. This is now coming into some debate in K-12 educational literature (see K-12 below).

Byrd, J.S. and Hudgins, J.L., "Teaming in the Design Laboratory," Journal of Engineering Education, 84(4), 335-42, October 1995.


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Problem Based Learning

Wilerson, L. and Gijselaers, W.H., Bringing Problem Based Learning to Higher Education: Theory and Practice, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 68, Winter 1996.

"Let Problems Drive the Learning" ASEE Prism (staff article), 30-36, October 1996.

Woods, Don, Problem-Based LearningL How to Get the Most From PBL, McMaster University, 1996.

Woods, Hrymak, Marshall, Wood, Crowe, Hoffman, Wright, Taylor, Woodhouse, and Bouchard, "Developing Problem Solving Skills: The McMaster Problem Solving Program," Journal of Engineering Education, 86(2), 75-92, April 1997.

Norman, G.R., & Schmidt, H.G., "The psychological basis of problem-based learning: A review of the evidence," Academic Medicine, 67(9), pp. 557-565, September 1992.

Stepien, W., & Gallagher, S., "Problem-Based Learning: As authentic as it gets," Educational Leadership," pp. 25-28, April 1993.

American Association For the Advancement of Science, Science for all Americans, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.


Finkle, S.L., & Torp, L.L., Introductory documents. (Available from the Center for Problem-Based Learning, Illinois Math and Science Academy, 1500 West Sullivan Road, Aurora, IL 60506-1000.) 1995.

PBL in K-12

Bruce, W.C., & Bruce, J.K., Teaching with inquiry, Alpha Publishing: Annapolis, MD, 1992.

Glasser, W., The quality school teacher, New York: Harper Perennial, 1993.

Newman, D., Griffin, P., & Cole, M., The construction zone: Working for cognitive change in school, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989

Nussbaum J., & Novick, S., "Alternative frame-works, conceptual conflict and accommodation: Toward a principled teaching strategy," Instructional Science, 11, 183-200, 1982.

Myers, R., Purcell, S.L., Little, J.O., & Jaber, W., "A middle school's experience with hypermedia and problem-based learning," A paper presented at the annual conference of the International Visual Literacy Association, Rochester, NY, 1983.

Savery, J.R., & Duffy, T.M., "Problem-Based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework," Educational Technology, (In Press).

Stepien, W., & Gallagher, S., "Problem-Based Learning: As authentic as it gets," Educational Leadership, pp. 25-28, April 1993.

Stepien, W., Gallagher, S. & Workman, D., "Problem-Based learning for traditional and interdisciplinary classrooms," Journal for the Education of the Gifted, (16)(4), pp. 338-35, 1993.

Marzano, R.J., A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with Dimensions of Learning, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1992.

Savoie, J.M., & Hughes, A.S., "Problem-based learning as classroom solution," Educational Leadership, 52(3), 54-57, 1994.


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Integrative Trends

Adams, S., Watson, K., and Malave, C., "Foundation Coalition at Texas A&M University: Utilizing TQM and OD to Manage Curricula Change," IEEE, FIE ’96 Proceedings.

Ambrose, S.A. and Amon, C.H., "Systematic Design of a First-Year Mechanical Engineering Course at Carnegie Mellon University," Journal of Engineering Education, 86(2), 173-82, April 1997.

Barrow, D., Bryant, J., DeBlassie, D., Seidel, H., and Strader, A., "Freshman Calculus in an Integrated Engineering Curriculum," ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, 1996.

Bassichis, "Physics in the Integrated First Year; Second Attempt," ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings, 1996.

Carroll, D.R., "Integrating Design into the Sophomore and Junior Level Mechanics Courses," Journal of Engineering Education, 86(3), 227-32, July 1997.

Denton, D., "Engineering Education for the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities," Journal of Engineering Education, 87, no. 1, 19-22, January 1998.

Evans, Doak, Duerden, Green, McCarter, Roedel, and Williams, "Team-Based Projects for Assessment in First-Year Physics Courses Supporting Engineering," IEEE, FIE ’96 Proceedings.

Kinney, "A Course in Statistical Analysis for Engineers in an Integrated Engineering Curriculum," ASEE Proceedings, 1996.

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Critical Thinking

Edward Lumsdaine and Monika Lumsdaine, Creative Problem Solving: Thinking Skills for a Changing World, College Custom Series, McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Kennedy, Mary, "Policy Issues in Teaching Education," Phi Delta Kappan, 661-66, May 1991.

Brookfield, S. D., Developing Critical Thinkers: Challenging Adults to Explore Alternatives Ways of Thinking and Acting, Josey-Bass, 1988.

French, E. S., Invention and Evolution: Design in Nature and Engineering, Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Kurfiss, J. G., "Critical Thinking: Theory, Research, Practice and Possibilities," ASHE/ERIC Higher Education Report 2, 1988.

Meyers, C., Teaching Students to Think Critically: A Guide for Faculty in All Disciplines, Josey-Bass, 1986.

Oaks, Roger, Notes from Richard Paul’s Workshop on Critical Thinking, Bush Faculty Development, 1997.

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Creative Problem Solving

Fogler & LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative Problem Solving, Prentice Hall, 1995.

Lumsdaine & Lumsdaine, Creative Problem Solving: Thinking Skills for a Changing World, College Custom Series, McGraw-Hill, 1993.

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Learning Styles

Gardner, Howard, Frames of Mind; The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books, 1983.

Tobias, They’re Not Dumb, They’re Different; Stalking the Second Tier, Research Corporation, 1990.

Perry, W.G., Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1970.

Clinchy, B.M. and Zimmerman, C. "Epistemology and Agency in the Development of Undergraduate Women," In P. Perun, The Undergraduate Woman: Issues in Educational Equity, Heath 1982.

Baxter-Magolda, M.B. and Porterfield, W.D., "A New Approach to Assess Intellectual Development on the Perry Scheme," Journal of College Student Personnel, 26, 343-351, 1985.

Baxter-Magolda, Marcia B., Knowing and Reasoning in College; Gender-Related Patterns in Students’ Intellectual Development, Josey-Bass, 1992.


Felder, R.M., "Meet Your Students," Chemical Engineering Education, 15, 196-197, 1991.

Tonso, K. L., "Student Learning and Gender," Journal of Engineering Education, 85(2), 143-50, April 1996.

Harb, J.N., Durrant, S. O., and Terry, R. E., "Use of the Kolb Learning Cycle and the 4MAT System in Engineering Education," Journal of Engineering Education, 82(2), 70-77, April 1993.

I.B. Myers and P.B. Myers, Gifts Differing, Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980.

Larson, J., Myers-Briggs Notes, Bush Faculty Development Workshop, 1994.


Kolb Inventory, David Kold, 1981 (rev. Nancy Dixon and Marilla Sviniki, Center for Teaching Effectiveness, U. Texas, Austin).

Drs Richard Felder and Linda Silverman, North Carolina State, have developed a short Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) which may be taken and scored on-line. This can be accessed through Dr. Felder’s web page at

Dr. Kellogg has a rather lengthy bibliography for applications of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Higher Education.

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Distance & Technology

Flori, R. E., "Perspectives on the Role of Educational Technologies," Journal of Engineering Education, 86(3), 269-72, July 1997.

Roedel, Evans, Doak, Kawski, Green, Duerden, McCarter, Williams, and Burrows, "Use of the Internet to Support an Integrated Introductory Course in Engineering, Calculus, Physics, Chemistry, and English," IEEE, FIE ’96 Proceedings.

Regan, M. and Sheppard, S., "Interactive Multimedia Courseware and the Hands-on Learning Experience: An Assessment Study," Journal of Engineering Education, 85(2), 123-32, April 1996.

Starfield, Smith, & Blelock, How to Model it, Problem Solving for the Computer Age, Burgess International, 1994.

Verduin, J.R. and Clark, T. A., Distance Education, Jossey-Bass, 1991.

Wallace, D. R. and Mutooni, P., "A Comparative Evaluation of World Wide Web-Based and Classroom Teaching," Journal of Engineering Education, 86(3), 211-20, July 1997.


Cost Effectiveness of a Virtual Campus

Virtual Campus Learning as Equal to or Greater Than on a Traditional Campus,407147,4000.html

Learning on a Traditional Campus as Greater Than on a Virtual Campus

None found

Student Needs/Growth (Marketing) Potential of a Virtual Campus

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Student Course Evaluations

[1] Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, The Johnson Foundation, Inc. (1989).

[2] Astin, A., "TQM for General Education: Implications of a National Study of Student Outcomes," Working Paper, UCLA (1992).

[3] Cashin, W., "Student Ratings of Teaching: A Summary of the Research," IDEA Paper No. 20, Center for Faculty Evaluation & Development, Kansas State U. (1988).

[4] Cashin, W., "Defining and Evaluating College Teaching," IDEA Paper No. 21, Center for Faculty Evaluation & Development, Kansas State U. (1989).

[5] Cashin, W., "Student Ratings of Teaching: Recommendations for Use," IDEA Paper No. 22, Center for Faculty Evaluation & Development, Kansas State U. (1990).

[6] Miller, R., Evaluating Faculty for Promotion and Tenure, 2nd ed., Jossey-Bass (1988).

[7] Seldin, P., Changing Practices in Faculty Evaluation - A Critical Assessment and Recommendations for Improvement, Jossey-Bass (1984).


IDEA Diagnostic and Evaluation Form.

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Sager, Carol, Eliminating Grades in Schools; An Allegory for Change, ASQC Briefing Series, ASQC Quality Press, 1995.

 Quigley, M., "Grading Students: A Practice Without a Theory," Critical Linkages II Newsletter, 9, April 1994.

 Beaudry, J., Dunn, R., and Klavas, A., "Survey of Research on Learning Styles," Educational Leadership, 46 no. 6, 50-58, 1989.

Kohn, A., Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, A’s, Praise, and Other Bribes, Houghton-Mifflin, 1993.

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National Commission of Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Research Council, National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. (1994, November). National Science Education Standards. (Draft). Washington, DC: Author.

Resnick, D.P., & Resnick, L.B. (1985). Standards, curriculum, and performance: A historical and comparative perspective. Educational Researcher, 14(4), 5-20.

Linkages (Universities, Community Colleges, & Secondary Education)

Wilbur, Franklin P., and Lambert, Leo M., Linking America’s Schools and Colleges; Guide to Partnerships & National Directory, 2nd ed., American Association for Higher Education, Anker Publishing, 1995.


Goals 2000: Educate America Act. (1994, March 31). Pub. Law 103-227 (108 Stat. 125).

Leonard, James F., The New Philosophy for K-12 Education; A Framework for Transforming America’s Schools, ASQC Quality Press, 1996.

(Note: Text has a number of good suggestions and provides a solid framework for the Deming Philosophy as applied to education. However, the author misunderstands the difference between within group variation and between group variation which leads to some erroneous conclusions. Readers are cautioned to avoid oversimplification when implementing suggestions in text).

Jenkins, Lee, Improving Student Learning: Applying Deming’s Quality Principles in Classrooms, ASQC Quality Press, 1997.


Clark, B., Growing up Gifted: Developing the Potential of Children at Home and at School, 3rd ed., MacMillan Publishing, 1988.

Dettmer, P., "Gifted Program Advocacy: Overhauling Bandwagons to Build Support," Gifted Child Quarterly, (35)4, 165-171, 1991.

Dettemer, P., "In the Public Interest: Gifted Education; A Window of Opportunity, Gifted Child Quarterly, (37)2, 92-94, 1993.

Feldhusen, J., "Synthesis of Research on Gifted Youth," Educational Leadership, 54 (6), 6-12, 1989.

 Fledhusen, J. and Moon, S., "Grouping Gifted Students: Issues and Concerns," Gifted Child Quarterly, (36)2, 63-67, 1992.

 Fiedler-Brand, E. "Tracking, Ability Grouping and the Gifted: Myths and Realities," Illinois Association for Gifted Children, Glenview, IL, 1990.

 Johnson, D. & Johnson, R., "What to say to Parents of Gifted Children," The Cooperative Link, 5(2), 1-2, 1989.

 Karnes, M., "PT/Partners: Parents and Teachers Nurturing the Gifted," American Guidance Service, 1987.

 Kulik, J.A. and Kulik, C., "Meta-Analytic Findings on Grouping Programs, Gifted Child Quarterly, (36)2, 73-77, 1992.

 National Excellence; A Case for Developing America’s Talent, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (Pat O’Connell Ross, Project Director) U.S. Department of Education, October, 1993.

 Rogers, K., The Relationship of Grouping Practices to the Education of the Gifted and Talented Learner: Research-Based Decision Making, Doctoral Dissertation, University of St. Thomas, 1991.


 Riggs, G.G., "Parent Power: Wanted for Organizations," Gifted Child Quarterly, (28)3, 111-114, 1984.

 Ross, P.O., "Advocacy for Gifted Programs in the New Educational Climate," Gifted Child Quarterly, (35)4, 173-176, 1991.

 Stepien, W.J., Gallagher, S.A., & Workman, D. Problem-Based Learning for traditional and interdisciplinary classrooms. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, (4), pp. 338-345, 1993.

 Walker, S., The Survival Guide for Parents of Gifted Kids, Free Spirit Publishing Co., Minneapolis, 1991.


 Rogers, K, Guidelines-Grouping Practices, Research-Based Decision Making Series, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented

 Hoge, R. D. and Renzulli, J. S., Guidelines: Self-Concept, Research-Based Decision Making Series, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented

 Robinson, A., Guidelines: Cooperative Learning, Research-Based Decision Making Series, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented

 Kulik, J.A., Guidelines: Ability Grouping, Research-Based Decision Making Series, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented

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